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Chlordane

CAS No- 57-74-9, dichlorochlordene; chlordan; Corodane; Octachlor; Belt; Chlortox; Gold Crest; Intox; Synklor; Aspon, Chloriandrin, Chlorkil, Corodan, Dowchlor, Termi-Ded;1,2,4,5,6,7,8,8-octachloro-2,3,3a,4,7,7a-hexahydro-4,7-methano-1H-indene; 1,2,4,5,6,7,8,8-octachloro-3a,4,7,7a-tetrahydromethanoindan; octachlorro-4,7-methanotetrahydroindan dichlorochlordene;

SPRI Emission Reporting Threshold
1.00 Kg/yr Pollutant Emissions to Air
0.1 Kg/yr Pollutant Emissions to Water
0.1 Kg/yr Pollutant Emissions to Waste Water
1.00 Kg/yr Pollutant Emissions to Land
Disclaimer
This sheet is a generic summary, designed to give the reader a basic level of background information about the substance in question. Great care has been taken to represent as effectively and correctly as possible the broad range of (not necessarily consistent) information which is available from a variety of sources. The reader must accept therefore that this sheet has no legal status and cannot be relied upon in any legal proceedings. SEPA disclaims any responsibility or liability whatsoever for errors and omissions in this sheet.
What is it?
Chlordane is generally found as a viscous amber liquid, with a pungent chlorine-like aroma. It boils at 175°C. It readily dissolves in most organic (carbon-containing) solvents, but is highly insoluble in water.
What is it used for?
Chlordane is a contact (non-sytemic) insecticide, manufactured for use on a wide array of agricultural crops.
Where does it come from?
Chlordane is mainly released to the environment through its application as an agricultural pesticide, and through resultant residues in food. Releases may also occur during its manufacture, transportation and storage. There are not thought to be any natural sources of Chlordane to the environment.
How might it affect the environment?
Chlordane is very toxic to aquatic organisms, and may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment. It is a suspected endocrine disruptor; that is, it can interfere with animal hormones. It is also a suspected carcinogen. It has also been shown to be a neorotoxin affecting fish and rodents. It takes a very long time to break down in the environment, binds strongly to aquatic sediments and accumulates rapidly in many species. It is also semi-volatile, so can also spread through the atmosphere. It has become widely dispersed and has been found in arctic air, water and biota.
How might exposure to it affect human health?
Chlordane is considered in the WHO Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality. Food is considered to be the major source of exposure of the general public to chlordane. To date, chlordane has been found in meat, eggs and milk, though levels have been decreasing. Chlordane may be toxic by inhalation, ingestion, and dermal or eye exposure. Symptoms induced include convulsions, vision disturbances, nausea, vomiting, stomach pain, headaches, dizziness. Individuals exposed to chlordane may appear agitated or excited, but later may become depressed, uncoordinated, tired and confused. It is a persistent CNS stimulant. Minor changes in liver and kidney function may occur from long term exposure. Chlordane is extremely irritating and even corrosive if it comes into contact with eyes. In 2001, the International Agency for Research on Cancer designated chlordane as a possible carcinogen (Group 2B).
What steps are being taken to limit the potential impacts?
Releases of Chlordane are controlled through the UK Pollution, Prevention and Control (PPC) Regulations. Chlordane is one of the 12 chemicals officially designated as "Persistent Organic Pollutant" (POP) by the Stockholm Convention on POPs. Persistent Organic Pollutant are chemicals that remain intact in the environment for long periods, become widely distributed geographically, accumulate in the fatty tissue of living organisms and are toxic to humans and wildlife. Chlordane is regulated under Protocol on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution and banned for export or import under the Rotterdam Convention on Export and Import of Dangerous Chemicals. As such countries are required to ban chlordane production. Chlordane is also designated a substance of possible concern under the OSPAR Convention which protects the marine environment of the north-east Atlantic Ocean.